In general sense, the term doping defines the use of prohibited substances or methods in sports. However, the introduction of the World Anti-Doping Code by World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) has restricted the athletes to use the drugs which violate the rules set by this regulatory body which are as follows;
Existence of forbidden elements or their metabolites in athlete’s body.
Usage of a forbidden elements as well as methods.
Refusal to supply a sample without justifiable cause, or otherwise evade sample collection.
Unavailable to have out-of-competition test, and failure to file due papers, or not indicating where you are at all times
Cheating, or trying to cheat in any way during checks.
Purchase or sale of prohibited substances or prohibited methods
Managing or attempting to administer prohibited substances or methods to an athlete, or assisting, encouraging, disguising or entering into any type of complicity involving violation or attempted violation of an anti-doping rule.
WADA began to constitute a possible case of doping when commenting any of previous infractions. However, after some evidence of such an infraction has been made by the athlete or personnel who committed it, he/she is entitled to a process carried out by a disciplinary body, in which he/she may prove innocence and may go to appeal.
Many substances are used by athletes or their support staff. The choice of a substance for use as doping depends on the pharmacological effects that one wishes to achieve according to the type of sport practiced. Thus, in sports where the use of force or power are preponderant, androgenic-anabolic steroids for doping are widely used. In sports where resistance predominates, blood doping has been widely used in any of its forms. In sports where explosiveness and aggressiveness are necessary, stimulants are widely used.
One of the most widely used anabolic steroids for doping substance is certainly erythropoietin, known as EPO, which is a hormone glycoprotein. Other substances have also been used such as propranolol, pemoline, amphetamines and testosterone.
It is difficult to detect the inappropriate use of substances when they are also produced endogenously by the body and it is when it becomes necessary to resort to very sophisticated techniques of analysis to demonstrate that the contribution of that substance is exogenous and non-endogenous.
The three examples of the most difficult substances to detect are the somatotropic hormone, nandrolone and erythropoietin because there is a pulsatile secretion of these substances. For example, it is known that growth hormone is generated in the pituitary gland, especially at night. Certain factors may increase its amount, for example, the amino acid arginine.
For detection of nandrolone, whose current limit is artificially and by consensus leaves 2 nanograms/ml determinations uses its two main metabolites androstenediol 19-nor and 19-nor-androstenedione. We will always find pathological or subclinical situations in which all these substances can be altered and even exceed the limits established artificially.